The decision-making process is considered a reality in any administrative institution. And it is a process faced by management personnel at different levels of management and job responsibilities, because decision-making is one of the basic functions in management that the leader should be good at applying.
And be aware of it, because the structure of the administrative institution is determined The way you make decisions.
Importance of decision-making and decision-making
While many see the decision as the core and essence of management, as they indicated that decision-making is the heart of management, and that the concepts of management theory should be derived from logic and the psychology of human choice.
Decisions are just a series connected to each other, and every major decision is followed by a continuum of decisions, so every decision is preceded by a decision until the goals are implemented.
Therefore, the value of the decision depends on the success of its impact.
Since the logical effect is represented in the goals, the value of the decision is related to the degree of its impact in achieving those goals.
Elements of decision making
The administrative decision should include several elements, the most important of which are:
- The goal of making the decision: where the decision is not taken unless there is a specific goal and the decision in this depends on the degree of importance of the goal to be achieved, and the more clear the goal, the more the decision taken is sound.
- Motivation: He does not make a decision unless he is motivated to achieve a specific goal.
- Prediction: It is a matter of estimating what will happen in the future if the decision is taken in a specific way, because most decisions deal with the future and its trends, and possible variables.
- Alternatives: The alternative is where the leader puts a number of solutions and alternatives to the problem, and accordingly, the decision-maker here does not limit himself to developing one solution, but rather has several solutions in front of him and chooses the appropriate solution that he believes will achieve his goal.
- Limitations of decision-making: The decision-maker faces limitations when making a decision, including: the degree of risk, the degree of assurance of return, sources of funding, experience, and the duration of the implementation of the decision.
Every part of the decision-making process is considered a decision-making function, because it contributes to achieving the set goals, and decision-making functions can be explained in the following points:
(1) Setting Managerial Objectives
Where the decision-making process begins with setting goals and this function is considered renewable, as whenever one of the set goals is achieved, it moves to the next goal, and if all goals are achieved, new goals are set to achieve them.
(2) Searching for Alternatives
This job includes surveying the internal and external environmental factors of the institution in order to provide the appropriate information, and then this information is formulated in the form of alternatives, each of which is suitable to achieve the objectives.
(3) Comparing and Evaluating Alternatives
In this function, alternatives are evaluated in order to reach the best alternative that helps in achieving the goal or objectives in an ideal manner. This alternative is also compared to ascertain its effects and the results expected to be achieved if it is adopted.
(4) The Act of Choice
Reaching a decision on the appropriate alternative after confirming its validity, then it is reached by the decision-maker that this option is the appropriate alternative.
(5) Implementing the Decision
This is when the alternative chosen is applied through the implementation process, and in this way the option turns from an oral option under study to an applied option and awaits its results.
(6) Follow-up and control
In this function, it is ensured that the results of the applied decision are consistent with the objectives set in advance, and the integrity and effectiveness of the decision taken and its ability to achieve the goals of the institution is verified.
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